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GUIDELINES TO AUTHORS

Please read the Guidelines to Authors before sending the manuscript.

Article Information:


  • The authors are recommended to read the Aims and scope of the journal before submitting the manuscript the relevance of the article with the field of the journal is very important for consideration.
  • The authors must read the checklist for manuscript publication before submitting their articles.
  • The need for the authors to re-orient their drafts before submission of an article is inevitable, because the unedited and self-modified articles with formats other than the prescribed layout given below will be sent to the authors once again for re-submission before correction.
  • The manuscript must be submitted only through the online submission form available on the website. (http://jresearchbiology.com/Submit.php). Any doubts, inconvenience in the submission through this format should be addressed to contact@jresearchbiology.com. 
  • A covering letter, Article submission form and all the other allied parameters should be sent with the article during submission.
  • The manuscript should be submitted by one of the authors and not by anyone on their behalf.
  • To induce the speed of publication and to reduce the cost of the author, we recommend only online submission of the article. The need for the reduction of using paper materials and protecting our environment is more pronounced nowadays and thus we strongly recommend only paper free way of submission and publication.
  • We are also having sample letters, sample forms, formats and all allied tools in the resource for author’s page of the website.
  • It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permissions for reproducing illustrations, tables, etc. From other publications.


Types of Articles:


The following types of articles are could be published in our journal,


  • Original Research
  • Reviews
  • Overview
  • Short Communication
  • Letters
  • Protocol
  • Insights
  • Scientific Images
  • Hypothesis
  • Editorial


Conditions:


All manuscripts are subjected to peer review and editorial review. The papers considered for submission under the wavering of fee category will be analyzed within three working days regarding its acceptance for the consideration of peer review in their article. Only articles which are considered by the editorial board are taken for the peer review process and all the others will be rejected summarily with no other information into it.


All the articles upon publication should be recommended by one of the editors in the journal. The consideration is based on the positive output given by the editor and reviewer on your manuscript and not by any other means.


The authors should recommend two or more experts in their field of research for reviewing their manuscript. Please note that the articles could be sent to whom you recommend or else it will be sent to another expert already in the journals’ reviewers list. This should be ultimately decided only by the Editor-in-Chief and no author will be known, who reviews your article.


The accepted article will be published as a draft copy in the in-press page of the journal http://jresearchbiology.com/InPress.php. The article will be published only when all the formalities of the author is meted out.


The manuscript should not be published in any other journal or other publication media by the author or by any other person. The submission of the article implies that all copyrights are transferred from the author to the journal upon publication. Any accepted form of the paper or the original paper itself should never be reproduced without the written permission of the publisher.


All the papers should be formatted according to the prescribed format and must meet out all the categories in the checklist for the manuscript published.


Editorial policies


The articles should be original and are not submitted in any journal or any other media for publication. No forms of this article with any other name or with some other format should be available. The author should take care before selecting the article for submission on these editorial issues.


The duplicate or overlapping publications of the author is considered as a scientific plagiarism and thus it is strictly avoided. All information regarding the misuse of another work or a published article related is to be answered only by the author and not by the publisher. Care should be ensured that no material submitted as part of a manuscript has existing copyrights, or the rights of a third party.


Authors who publish in Journal of Research in Biology retain copyright to their work, for viewing your rights click here. The correspondence regarding the submitted article will be given then and there by the editors, and the author can ask any query regarding the manuscript at any time through the contact us form or through email.


Submission of a manuscript in the Journal of Research in Biology- A research Journal states that the author has read out all the guidelines for authors and the manuscript checking list, licenses, copyright, etc. Any removal or addition after publishing the article is strictly banned. The author is solely responsible for meting out all the quality and standards in these criteria.


Manuscripts may be rejected if the editorial office considers that the research has not been carried out within an ethical framework, if quality compromising and scientific plagiarism is noted.


The addition or deletion of a part of the paper is possible on recommendation from reviewers and editors. In that case the author can also give their extended contribution for liability and on some serious destruction of the concept or material the author can ask the editor to consider the manuscript with its original text, provided with valid reasons. The response of the author is highly needed and timely answering of recommendations are largely appreciated. Brand names and copyrighted trademarks on mentioned should be clearly acknowledged and also should be quoted in the reference section.


Submission of a manuscript to the Journal of Research in Biology implies that the materials are reproducible, including all relevant information and raw data. The published materials will be freely available to the scientific community for non-commercial purposes. Nucleic acid sequences and protein sequences should be deposited in a database and the accession numbers are to be included in the published article. All other allied materials to be deposited as open source should be done before publishing. (E.g.: Atomic coordinates, web related coding, softwares, databases, chemical structures, Microarray data, Plasmids, modeling data, etc.) In Bioinformatics studies where the sequence information is unacceptable in the databases because of the lack of experimental validation, the sequences must be published as an additional file with the article.


All works submitted for review should follow ethical guidelines; the specific principles of ethics for its research should be stated clearly in the methods section and be referenced.


We aimed at the development of research in the biological community and thus the fullest cooperation of authors in needed. We are following WAME, MAME, APS and CBE formats.


Preparation of the manuscript:


Basic Writing information:


    * Scientific names: For works dealing with biological organisms, we recommend you to write the scientific name with taxonomic authority either at the first mention in the text or in the Materials and Methods. You can then follow with its specific identity along with the symbol denoted for its generic epithet. A scientific name is always written in a singular form and not in a plural form.

    * Gene/ Protein names and sequences: Use appropriate symbols for genes and proteins; capitalize according to its format. Give accession number after depositing in the database.

    * Symbols: If there are many symbols please state it in the abbreviation list. If symbols are to be used in the text, use it in brackets.

    * Chemical symbols: All chemical symbols should be given according to the law, only recognized symbols should be used, on using the chemical names, apart from the branded names we recommend you to use IUPAC names of the chemical compounds.

    * Language standards: We encourage all to write in passive voice, indirect speech and with the past participle. Take care of all the spellings in the text. We prefer you to use British English spellings.

    * Subheadings: Do not use more than two levels of subhead under a main heading. Too many sub-headings will spoil the content.

    * Footnotes: Avoid using footnotes in your manuscript.

    * Measurements: Use SI Units (International System of Units). Inappropriate use of symbols will be considered as a mistake. (E.g.; For Gram it is ‘g’ and not ‘gms’)

    * Numbers: We are following CBE format, and we recommend authors to read the manual once again before writing. Numbers below 10 should not be written as numbers in between the text. That should be written only in letters. Only exception is in the calculation and with symbols.

    * Statistics: The statistician's advice is required for any analysis beyond simple data description or comparisons and must be mentioned in the ‘Methods’. All data should be described clearly in the methods region; the statistics used for the interpretation should be clearly validated with the data available. Wrong statistical analysis for the data should be strictly avoided. The need for a clear interpretation of p-value with its significance level should be stated. The hypothesis testing should validate clearly with the test that you are performing. For more details, see statistical checklist.

    * References: The reference should be strictly in the specific format prescribed here. We are following CBE format of reference and no other format is accepted here.


File formats


The manuscript should be sent to the editor by an author only in .doc, .docx or .rtf format. All other formats will be sent to the author once again for re-submission.


Manuscript Organization, its format and style.


Although it is the final decision of the editor to accept an article for peer review, mostly it will be resent to you for consideration of these organizations, formats and styles. Please ensure that the manuscripts were formatted according to the following instructions.


  •     Use Times new Romans font at size 11 or 12
  •     Double-space all parts of the manuscript
  •     Do not use center, left or right alignment. Use justify alone.
  •     Set margins to at least one inch on all sides and set paper size to A4 international paper.
  •     Your manuscript should be submitted in a portrait format and not in the landscape format
  •     Number pages consecutively.
  •     Turn off "track changes" in your Word file and accept all changes in the document. Your file on submission should not carry any password for protection.
  •     The legends for the figures and graphs should be given separately below, in a text box or in any other way. The inline text in figures should be strictly avoided.
  •     Manuscripts should be formatted according to the guidelines given below; all the articles which were formatted in formats other than our format will be sent back to the author for reconsideration.
  •     Manuscripts should be divided into the following components                              


§ Title page,

§ Abstract,

§ Introduction,

§ Materials and Methods,

§ Results,

§ Discussion,

§ Acknowledgments,

§ References,

§ Tables,

§ Figure Legends.

§ Appendix.


Arrangements:


Title Pages:


    *   Double space all contents present in the title page.

    *   Include all information in the title in the format listed below.

    *   A Title of the manuscript should not have more than 35 letters and spaces, should be in one line or maximum of two lines.

    *   A short running title.

    *   The names of all authors.

    *   The present addresses of all the authors (In case of affiliation with onother institution, the author must give the address of the institution in which the work is carried out).

    *   The e-mail address of the corresponding author.

    *   Phone Number, Fax number should be included.

    *   Corresponding address of the authors if different from the address given above.

    *   A list of all unusual abbreviations used in the text.

    *   A list of key words and phrases describing the contents of the manuscript.

    *   The accession numbers of Nucleotides, protein sequences and other deposited materials should be stated.


Abstract:


The abstract should include a hypothesis or rationale for the work, a brief description of the methods, a summary of the results, and a conclusion. The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 350 words and must be structured into separate sections,


Background: What is the major problem that prompted the study?


Methods: How was the study performed?


Results: The most important findings? 


Conclusions: Brief summary and potential implications?


Accession No: If anything deposited in the databanks


          Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references, tables, figures or equations in the abstract. 


Keywords:


        A short list of keywords or phrases should be included immediately after the abstract as index words. Choose keywords that reflect the content of your article. Note that words in the title are not searchable as keywords unless they are also included in the keyword list.


Background:


The introductory section of the text should include a brief statement of why the research was conducted. It should also define the problem and present objectives along with a plan of development of the subject matter. The introductory section usually includes a brief survey of the relevant literature on the topic. The section should end with a very brief statement of what is being reported in the article. The text in the introductory section should be written with no expertise knowledge, but a note on the results, observations and its outcome should be stated. A clear objective of the research and its future prospects should be given at the end of the introduction.


Materials and Methods:


          Provide sufficient details so that the work may be repeated. Give details of the methods described in readily available sources. Refer to the sources and describe any modification if done. It should be checked that the figures that illustrate the test apparatus and tables of treatment parameters or equipment specifications are appropriate.


Results and Discussion:


          This section describes the solution to the problem stated in the introductory section. Use figures and tables to visually supplement the presentation of your results. The text must refer explicitly to all visuals, and you must interpret the visual elements to emphasize the evidence on which, your conclusions are based on. Do not omit important negative results. Discussion should be clear and proven.


In addition, relate your findings to previous observations by identifying how and why there are differences and where there is agreement. Speculation is encouraged, but it must be identified.


Illustrations and Tables:


Tables and illustrations should be presented on separate pages. Tables should be given a heading with a maximum of one and a half line. Figures should be given a legend at the bottom separately, care should be taken that the legend is not a part of the image file and is given separately. All figures stated out should be reproducible. For the reproduction of illustrations, fine drawings and original photographs are needed, when photographs are taken from a copyrighted material, it is the work of the author to get permission from both the owner and the publisher. Crude figures with background screens and unclean photographs are literally rejected; the photographs submitted should be clear and should self explain the text. The need for the photographs with good resolution is very important, photographs with resolutions below 300 dpi will be resent to the author for submission once again. An author can submit his figures with a maximum resolution of 1200 dpi. All raw images should be ready with the author for submission to the publisher at any time for verification.


Basic guidelines for tables


    * Tables should be created only with the table creating wizard of MS Word. Don’t create tables in MS Excel.

    * The tables should not be created with borders wizard or with tabs. Don’t create tables with multiple text boxes

    * Give numbers to each table separately and cite them in the text wherever it is necessary.

    * Each table should be given with separate headings (Title), and should be placed after the reference section.

    * If symbols were used, describe it in the footnotes.


Guidelines for Figures


    * The Size of the figures is an important criteria to be considered before submitting an article.

    * All rights are reserved for editors to make final decisions about the reproduction of the sizes of figures.

    * Submit figures as raw photographs taken from the camera, labeling of photographs are to be done only below the photograph in the text boxes or in plain word text. The incorporation of text in the photographs is strictly avoided. Any modification of figures and Photoshop editing of photographs is to be avoided strictly as it leads to scientific plagiarism to a large extent. The figures should be given as such as it is when taken from the camera.

    * If the size of the photograph determines a measurement, use scale bars on the figure.

    * In graphs, label all axes available. The legends should be appropriate. The graphs should be used only for the explicit projection of results and in no way for aesthetic purpose. Use graphical representations which are appropriate for the data.

    * Figures should be numbered consecutively, all figures given in the manuscript should be cited somewhere in the article text.

    * Authors who create digital images are wholly responsible for the quality of their material, including color and halftone accuracy.

    * For creating digital arts we prefer you to Adobe Illustrator or Adobe Photoshop, and resolutions should be at least 300 dpi. All figures created should be in RGB mode.

    * The chemical structures should be given with specific legends. The chemical structures can be given as an image, or else it should be stated as given in CDX, MOL or TGF format.

    * The submitted figures should be in one of the file extension given below.                                      


              JPEG, TIFF, PSD, PDF, PNG, BMP.


Guidelines for Videos:


         Videos can also be submitted along with the article as an extra conformation of the results. These will be published after review and a logo of the publishing group will be inserted into the video with your article citation on publication. The formats you can send us are SWF and FLV for animations, MOV and MPEG for movies and embedded links in case of already published materials in an open source database.


Tabular Data:


         Large tabular data submission can also be done as an allied material for supporting the results. The data should not be raw instead it should be the outcome of a specific analysis may be wet or dry. The format of the tabular data should be strictly XLS or CSV.


Colour:


         Colour of the material is also very important to be taken into consideration. The colour should not be an irritant to the eyes and all illustrations and figures used for the manuscript were for the better understanding of the results and not for the aesthetic purpose.


Conclusion:


          This is a summary of your results. In this section, state any conclusions that can be drawn from your data. You may also include suggestions for future research. The conclusion may be a subsection of the Results and Discussion section, or it may be a separate section. Data or statements cited in your conclusion must have been stated previously in the article. Do not introduce new information in the conclusion.


References:


          All sources cited in the text must be listed in the References, and all documents listed in the References must be cited in the text. Accuracy of citation is the author's responsibility. Following is a reference format given based on the Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, Sixth Edition [T11 S386 1994]. Authors are requested to refer this style guide for more precise formats.


Reference format:


Book - Single Author


Schlesinger WH. 1997. Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change. 2nd ed. San Diego (CA): Academic Press. 588 p.


Citation in text: (Schlesinger 1997)


Book - Volume with Separate Title


           Ridgway SH, Harrison R. 1999. Handbook of marine mammals. Volume 6, The second book of dolphins and the porpoises. San Diego (CA): Academic Press.


Citation in text: (Ridgway and Harrison 1999)


Book - Organization as Author


[NRC] National Research Council, Committee on Protection and Management of Pacific Northwest Anadromous Salmonids, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences. 1996. Upstream: salmon and society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington: National Academy Press. 452 p.


Citation in text: (NRC 1996)


Proceedings - Title Diff erent from Conference Name


Bartlett D, Smith, J, editors. 2005.GIS for coastal zone management. CoastGIS ’01Conference; 2001 June 18-20; Halifax, Canada. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. 310 p.


Citation in text: (Bartlett and Smith 2005)


Journal Article (continuous pagination)


Norton JE, Ashley MV. 2004. Genetic variability and population structure among wild Baird’s tapirs. Anim Conserv 7:211-220.


Citation in text: (Norton and Ashley 2004)


Journal Article (paginated by issue)


Hamilton JB, Curtis GL, Snedaker SM, White KW. 2005. Distribution of anadromous fishes in the upper Klamath River watershed prior to hydropower dams - a synthesis of the historical evidence. Fisheries 30(4):10-19.


Citation in text: (Hamilton and others 2005)


In press article 


          Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ: Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Eur Respir J, in press.


Citation in text: (Kharitonov and Barnes )


Government Report


Schick RS, Edsall AL, Lindley ST. 2005. Historical and current distribution of Pacific salmonids in the Central Valley, CA. Santa Cruz (CA): US Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz Laboratory. Report nr NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-369.


Citation in text: (Schick and others 2005)


Electronic Journal Article


Moragues E, Traveset A. Effect ofCarpobrotus spp. on the pollination success of native plant species of the Balearic Islands. Biol Conserv [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 May 31];122:611-619. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.09.015


Citation in text: (Moragues and Traveset 2005)


Electronic Book


[NRC] National Research Council, Committee on Undergraduate Journal of Research in Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century. 2003. Bio2010: transforming undergraduate education for future research biologists [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press; 2003 [cited 2005 May 31]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309085357/html/. Also available in paper copy from the publisher.


Citation in text: (NRC 2003)


Web Site


ActionBioscience [Internet]. [AIBS] American Institute of Biological Sciences; c2000-2005 [cited 2005 May 31]. Available from: http://www.actionbioscience.org/


Citation in text: (AIBS 2005)


Dissertations and Theses


Dettmers JM. 1995. Assessing the trophic cascade in reservoirs: the role of an introduced predator [dissertation]. Columbus (OH): Ohio State University. 188 p.


Citation in text: (Dettmers 1995)


Conference Paper


Clarke A, Crame JA. 2003. Importance of historical processes in global patterns of diversity. In: Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, editors. Macroecology: concepts and consequences. Proceedings of the 43rd annual symposium of the British Ecological Society; 2002 Apr 17-19; Birmingham. Malden (MA): Blackwell. p 130-152.


Citation in text: (Clarke and Crame 2003)


Conference Abstract


Swanson TA, Blair P, Madigan L. 2004. Reduction in medication errors through redesign of the medication use system [abstract]. In: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists 39th midyear meeting; 2004 Dec 5-9; Orlando. Bethesda (MD): American Society of Health System Pharmacists. MCS-28.


Citation in text: (Swanson and others 2004)


Technical Report


Ford PL, Fagerlund RA, Duszynski DW, Polechla PJ. 2004. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. General Technical Report nr RMRS-GTR-123. 57 p.


Citation in text: (Ford and others 2004)


Appendix:


               Use an appendix for material that is too long to include in the text of the article. Other data for better understanding of the research outcome can be given here. If a new protocol or methodology is formulated, some important gist of the same could be given in this section.


Manuscript processing charges:


Journal of Research in Biology has an article processing fee for every article on acceptance, to cover the article processing charges. You can also register as an institutional member for publishing your article at low cost. We also waive charges for authors from low income nations and scholars who are really devoid of money to publish their research. For more details, see wavering of fees section in the article charges page. All who ask for the wavering of fees are requested to send their request while sending their manuscript. Please don’t send us request at the time of acceptance, most of the articles which demand for the wavering of fees at the time of acceptance will be neglected with no other reason.


        Journal of Research in Biology is an International Journal. This journal provides immediate access to all published full-text articles to interested readers from all around the world. The availability of the author’s paper makes the scientific community to understand and develop an impact in the concerned research field. It also increases the chance of more citations of the published work, which in turn can be translated into more recognition of research. This journal also accelerates research and knowledge building worldwide.


         Publishing an article in the Journal of Research in Biology requires payment of the manuscript processing charges, once the manuscript is accepted for publication. The payment is to be made by one of the authors, their university/organization, or funding entity. The manuscript processing charges are fixed so as to allow publishers to recover manuscript processing expenses and the cost of making the full-text available on the Internet to all interested researchers. 


Article Processing Charges        


The charges for submission of a Research article is USD 100, up to 8 pages and for more pages, each page costs 15 USD.


 License:


Authors publishing with Journal of Research in Biology retain the copyright to their work, All their research articles and images are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license allows the articles to be downloaded from the website, copied and distributed as long as the original content is left unmodified


 


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